Imagine A City Of =

Final dissertation by Christoff Gillen for MA Art in Public, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. 2008 Imagine A City Of = series.

Contents: Introduction Chapter 1 The Process Chapter 2 Public Art & Dialogue Chapter 3 Political Activism Chapter 4 Land Art Conclusion Bibliography Appendix

Introduction I wanted to create a public art piece that related to the historical and political landscape of Ulster by asking relevant questions from the Black Mountain in West Belfast.

In this essay I will discuss my project and look at its context within Public art, Land art and Political activism. It will reflect on the level of interaction and engagement of the work and address my position as an artist and political activist.

The idea to use the Black Mountain as a canvas came from a field trip as part of my Ma Art in public 8/10/2007 to West Belfast and the Shankill Road looking at public art such as murals, sculptures and memorials. When in Woodvale Park I noticed the mountain. It struck me as an ideal site albeit a logistical nightmare for an art piece.

I had decided on this location but now I asked myself how could I use The Black Mountain as a canvas?

Chapter 1: The Process Background One of the key issues behind my thinking for this project was to question how can I approach and deal with the legacy of the troubles. I felt that making a Public Art work on the face of a mountain that is accessible to all the people of Belfast came some way to acknowledge the legacy and to avoid the warning of George Santayana;

“Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it” [1]

I believe some artists are in a unique position to work in ways that can affect social change. In public and performance art in particular, art works are immediately in the public domain, allowing people experiences, which they can take home, and use to affect their own lives, metaphorically speaking.

Content ‘What cannot be said, above all must not be silenced, but written’[2]

I believe text is a simple communication tool for an artist to use, however as Dr Cherie Driver says in The Vacuum in regard to Shane Cullen’s piece in Golden Thread Gallery, Belfast, ‘The Agreement to an Exhibition’ (Plate 1) it has been used mainly by social theorists, philosophers and feminists but very rarely directly by artists.[3]


My art practice to date has included several pieces involving text-based work. For example, in October 2003 I helped paint a mural on the Lower Ormeau Road ‘Not for Sale’ (see Plate 2) and 14th February 2003 “Lost lives”. (See Plate 3).



Alfredo Jaar, as part of Art Media & Contested Spaces uses a billboard upon which he placed a piece of text WHY. The location of the billboard was Ormeau Road beside Sean Graham’s bookmakers where in 1992 a loyalist shooting resulted in the death of five people. (Plate 4) I find this work very interesting in terms of its scale and in the way it threw out a question using language as its mediator. I believe that the use of text as a mediator in public spaces is a very powerful tool and lends itself to opening up dialogue.


‘Imagine A City of =’ continued my trajectory of using local sites as canvases to place text. The Black Mountain was however a much bigger canvas and one which had the potential to reach a wider audience than previous projects.

Location I used Black Mountain as a geographical canvas due to the location, because it is situated traversing both communities within Belfast.

It has been used for various protests, loyalist and republican platforms and other examples, which are detailed later. I wanted to use a site on the mountain, which, while not neutral[4] was situated in between those sites previously used.

Part of my work had been going up the mountain on my own and looking down on the city. On my first solo walk was 3rd November 2007, I could see that the entire structure of the Peace wall was visible from the mountain as it crosses both sides of the community. Therefore, in many ways the mountain is a metaphor; in physically crossing the community divide and in terms of its name and history.

‘The Black Mountain, including Divis, was first leased by the Ministry of Defence in 1953, during the Cold War. It was a training area, with a small arms range. When the lease expired in 1986, the MOD purchased the site; it was used as a communications site throughout the worst of Northern Ireland’s troubles. It was deemed surplus to requirements in 1999 and then was sold to the National Trust for £3m. In many ways it is now part of the peace dividend. One of its big advantages is that it’s neutral territory. Unlike the city below, these mountains do not have any political flags, sectarianism, graffiti or political kerbstones. When it comes to the environment the greening of Belfast is something that both sides of the community can support’. [5]

[1] G.Santayana, ’History the Definitive Visual Guide, London, Dorling Kindersley, 2007. [2] Jacques Derrida, The Postcard: from Socrates to Freud and Beyond, University of Chicago Press, 1987, p194 [3] Dr Cherie Driver, The Vacum issue 03, ‘The Agreement’. [4] As the land crosses both communities it cannot be described as neutral territory. [5] Www. BBCnews/NI/Belfast’s Green Place For Everyone

People My intention had been to directly engage with community relation groups. My proposal was to work with two groups from each side of the community. On 11th November 2007 and 17th December 2007 I met with the Enright Foundation[6]. These meetings resulted in them initially coming onboard; however, in January 2008 I was contacted by the Foundation who informed me that at this juncture they would prefer to work on an individual rather than group level with teenagers. This was not suitable for what I was planning to do. In addition, two further groups were contacted and meetings were set up at the end of February 2008. The groups involved were The Glencairn Youth Group and The Blackie Centre Youth Group. Both groups are cross community, working with youths in West Belfast.

In conjunction with this I set up a number of meetings with Belfast Exposed between 18th and 21st December 2007 they were going to facilitate the groups with a number of photographic workshops.

My psyche and focus was to express my own personal voyage of mind onto a city that has suffered. Therefore, towards the end of January 2008, after more deliberation, I decided that working, as part of a group at the beginning of my process was not the best route to take. This project was part of a personal journey for me. Working with the community groups at this juncture would have taken from my artistic and personal development. I have a personal history with the mountain and ‘Imagine a City of =’ became almost a pilgrimage for me. This fed into the nature of the work and shaped its development. One of the main effects of this was that while I talked with people during the process and although the conversations and interviews with locals were of great value, I knew what I needed to do and this dialogue did not change my ultimate goal. I decided to open the process up in a more democratic way in the next stage of the project, which would take the form of a panel discussion, and a cross-cultural community-planting project on the mountain.

This final phase is discussed in Chapter 4. Further, as I was doing this within my MA course the time frame was of considerable importance and it was not possible to build up the level of trust and rapport with the various groups and individuals I felt was necessary to give the project integrity. As Grant Kester discusses in Dialogical Aesthetics, revisiting sites and developing ‘sustained relationships in time and space’[7] is one of the key conditions of dialogical art and one of the main challenges to its discursive interaction.

Concept By mid February 2008 I had the concept which I then continued to develop. Part of the process in developing my concept was to place and photograph from below a 100ft question mark on the site, which directly looked down on the Interface Wall. This question mark was to act as a metaphor for my questioning the site for the proposed idea.

Spelling words on the mountain became a way of building an organic dialogue with anyone who saw them in the city below. The nature of dialogue the work initiated is discussed in Chapter 2.

Practicalities At this stage in my process I had several practical issues to address.

Access During the early stages of the current process 6th October – 26th November 2008 I introduced myself to the local farmer, who owned the land. I built up a rapport with this family, his wife came out and told me he had been listening to the work on the radio and the son came out full of curiosity about what I was spelling out. I had to tell them they just had to wait and see!

Materials I had by now established my concept and gained permission to work on the site, however, I still had to source suitable materials.

Initially I was using white linen to make the letters. However, this was not a suitable material as it was too heavy and not weather proof. White polythene plastic proved to be a much better medium. It was difficult to locate a local supplier, and once I found Cirrus Plastics in Portadown, Co. Armagh, I discovered the most cost efficient way to buy this was in sheets of approximate 210 ft x 4.2 ft for £25.

Regarding composition I calculated that I needed approximately 50 feet in height and width 25 feet. This would give the optimum affect.

The Journey From this part of the process, momentum gathered and from 5 April -17th May 2008 people joined and others observed the weekly ascent. I advertised the weekly walks throughout the city in the Art College, local galleries and studios, I also sent emails to individuals, and posters to the local media such as the Belfast Telegraph after each climb. These posters always used an image from the previous weeks climb.

Usually it was friends and fellow artists who joined me. By the end of 7 walks, we had simply placed letters on the mountain face.

The role of those who climbed with me was in assisting the performance action and in their moral support. What was important to me was the process itself. The journey from the City Hall up to the mountain was dotted with both personal and historical facts. From the City Hall we ascended the Falls via the Morning Star Hostel, past a greengrocer shop where Ian Paisley and company once marched up to remove an A4 tricolour from the window, (certainly a contributory factor of The Troubles.) We then went onto the Black Taxi depot from where we travelled to the top of the Whiterock Road. This puts the experience of the journey into context and shows why it was an important part of the process.

[6] Enright Foundation set up in 2001after the murder of Terry Enright junior. [7] Grant Kester, ‘Dialogical Aesthetics; A Critical Framework for Littoral Art’, Variant Magazine Issue 9, 1999-2000

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Mystery on the Hillside


Following the Question Mark, (Plate 5) the first letter I placed on the mountain was the H of HOME (Plates 6–9). I wanted to question what ‘home’ means in this period of transition in Northern Ireland. From the view of the Interface Wall from the Black Mountain site I was struck by the divided structure of the communities below and felt that the idea of ‘Home’ was the best place to start questioning the various issues prevalent in the current post conflict situation in Northern Ireland.





I wanted to question what home meant to me, I have lived here since 1979, but in various ‘homes’ and houses. I see the island as a home in a metaphorical sense. I wanted to explore this through the project as I think that the physical movements and location of people is not the most significant factor in being ‘at home’. It is more the memories and experiences of being at home which affect how we relate to each other.

The first letter of the word home being H aroused a lot of interest even suspicion, so much so that it caused media response and appeared in the Belfast Telegraph 30th April 2008 (Plate 10). This is because the letter H has a political significance and meaning in NI history due to the H block in the Maze prison where in 1981 10 Irish Republicans died on Hunger strike. (The political nature of my work is discussed further in Chapter 2.)



I was able to respond to the media interest through an interview with Belfast Telegraph journalist, Matthew Mc Creary, which was published 2nd May 2008 (plate 11).This was the beginning of a dialogue with local newspapers, which were attempting to solve the ‘Mystery on the Hillside’.

Further media interest viz a viz radio stations were discussing the letters on the Mountain. I spoke on two of the biggest stations, radio Ulster on the Stephen Nolan breakfast show and FM 105 with Frank Mitchell.

The idea for ‘Imagine a City of =’ came while taking down the NO BUSH letters off the mountain (see chapter 2). I was critically analysing the process, asking myself how I could best proceed with it, from the concept to the materials. The city lights were peppering the sky and the words ‘Imagine a City of =’ struck me as poignant and apt for this project. After pondering the phrase during the summer I decided to proceed with it. I had previously considered that it would be effective to insert symbols on the mountain face too, as the symbols are graphic and easily understood and this then became possible as a natural progression from the title.

After starting the process of placing these letters I took part in an international performance festival, ‘I Am’, 20th – 27th October 2008, Stranmillas College, Belfast. (Plate 12) I wanted to include my work on the mountain as part of this as it was coinciding with the festival. I used the opportunity to open up my process and experiment with it making its development more Democratic, I set a task for the audience. A self-addressed envelope was handed out before my performance, after the performance I explained that this envelope contained paper for people to make a design out of two symbols (= and an arrow road sign). I received over 40 designs and chose the 5 most suitable drawings, which I then placed on the mountain as part of my on going assessment with internal and external examiners on 26th November 2008 (Plate 13).

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Chapter 2: Public art & Dialogue The challenges, changes, unexpected encounters and directions of the work are discussed below in relation to public art.

Behind my thoughts on making a public art piece in Northern Ireland, I considered the fact that in Northern Ireland there are various public memorials to individuals. However there is not one collective site where everyone is mentioned. Public art works which have influenced me include, ‘The Holocaust’, a sculptural piece by George Segal in Lincoln Park, San Francisco of scattered bodies 1982 (plate 14). Another public artist which influenced me has been Mya Lia in 1981 in The Mall, Washington DC, she printed the names into marble of all those who died in the Vietnam War (plate 15)



I liked this idea as it made reference to individual names and not an accumulated number.

As mentioned in my introduction ‘Lost Lives (plate 3) was a performance piece, which I carried out at City Hall 14th February 2003. It attempted to reach those who had lost loved ones and those who cared enough to demonstrate against the war in Iraq. I inscribed each and every individual name of those who had lost their lives in Northern Ireland as a result of the war here.

Public art is defined as, ‘an extremely loose term for any artwork made for a public space outside the gallery or museum’[1]. The definition goes on to say that ’Many artists use communal spaces to reach a non art audience and to make political statements’

I used The Black Mountain as a space on which to make my statement, which while not Political, carries a political weight. I will go on to look at political activism in regard to my work later in this chapter.

I wanted to engage in Public art in this way as I felt it would lead to dialogue that direct political slogans would not.

Dialogue As Toby Dennett says in the Public Art Handbook, ‘Public art is about engagement and discussion, about new ways of thinking and looking, it is challenging, creative, ambitious and dare one say, controversial.’[2]

My work on the mountain needed to engage with the people who saw it. I had decided not to engage with ‘the public’ before I placed the letters and symbols but during the process. When I started the process I had a definite phrase to spell out,  through this decision I put myself in the position of the ‘solo speaker’, I did this deliberately to take a stance, using the mountain face as a personal ‘platform’. I was aiming to spark responses from people on the ground that saw a new visual process unfold on the Black Mountain. It was an organic process, paced and punctuated with time before each word was formed very unlike any other previous messages placed

there which I do not feel opened up a new space for dialogue. Many viewers, working out what I was saying, suggested relevant words for the city and generally wondered what was going on. There is no doubt that the project attracted a huge amount of attention in the city which is great, The collaborative and participatory nature of my practice was always in the public gaze, in terms of scale and location. The process was opened up for the public to participate physically and through  dialogue.

Conversations Some of the most poignant conversations are summarised below:

Employees in the BT call centre in Belfast were following the action and actually writing down the letters so they were able to work out what was being spelled out.

Michael Hogg, a fellow artist informed me that pupils in his daughters school in North Belfast had been following the letters and were writing them down to work out what was being spelled out as part of their classroom activities.

A group of local teenage scouts and their leaders were at the top of the mountain on a day trip, they were wondering what I was doing and organised an impromptu task mission to find out what was being spelled out and briefly we discussed the work.

In several local hostelries within Greater Belfast area curiosity as to what was happening to the mountain face was a regular topic of conversation.

A German international volunteer staying at the Quaker House, I met when calling into for a glass of water, had been documenting the process with photographs

A black community taxi driver driving in the White Rock area had been listening to the story on U105, and stated that most taxi drivers in the west had been following what had been happening on the Mountain  and writing down each letter as it went

up, he knew that t was imagine a city of. He thought the next word maybe was Peace and went on to inform me that other family members had thought similarly.

Three road builders, on seeing my walking stick and rucksack asked was it myself who had been doing this and told me that they and been watching the whole process through binoculars from the Springfield road builders yard. Initially he thought it was a character who lives in New Barnsley who is a big John Lennon fan, so he assumed the imagine was in relation to John Lennon’s birthday, which fell in and around the time of the letter I.  This was actually a common assumption by some, which I find quite interesting as it shows the reactions to writing on the mountain had totally shifted from being of a protest or sectarian nature.

Further, another taxi driver had heard about a crane driver who called U105, because he had been following the letters from his crane but on one particular day he could not see the letter himself due to poor visibility

Some members of the community were texting local newspapers about the letters on Black Mountain, trying to work out what was happening.

After placing the final letter, another community taxi driver, after my descent, who had been following the process, started talking to me about the current peace process and said the local politicians should look at what I was doing and apply it to what they were doing in Stormont, expressed as politicians had reached political stalemate in Stormont..

Apart from the people who saw the work from the city, and the effects of this, the work branched out to other forms of dialogue with broader political movements.

The Anti War movement approached me to work on a collaboration as part of the NO Bush campaign May 2008; I was very pleased about this as it meant the mountain was being a platform for other non sectarian but global issues. I climbed the mountain with 29 anti war activists to place ‘NO BUSH’ on the mountain on 15th June  2008 (plate 16). This was a visual addition to the protest in the city centre the following day[3],[4].


I was then approached by the Glelenavy anti Incinerator protest group based in Co Antrim. I visited this site and suggested that for their first big public campaign they should get as many people as possible to create a sculptural human chain. This took the form of 500 people spelling out NO (Plate 17).



I was invited to talk to students from Florida who were staying in the Burren, County Clare at the end of July 2008 by Sean Millar, artist in residence at Flax Art Studios (Plate 18.) It took the platform of an informal talk of my work on the mountain followed by a question and answer, I received a positive response.

This brings me onto where my work sits within Political Activism.

[1] The 20th Century Art book, Phaidon, Glossary of terms [2] Toby Dennett, The Public Art Handbook p9 [3] www.utube/nowelcomeforbush,belfast, part2 [4] Ryan McKinney, a fellow anti war activist e-mailed me to say “I’ve been involved in anti- war activities for a number of years now and I have to say your work on the Black Mountain was one of the best things to come out of the movement. You’ll be glad to hear it has inspired others”, dated 3rd July 2008.

Chapter 3: Political Activism There have been political links to land art since the 60’s with artists taking action directly in response to situations. This period was also a time were-by several movements emerged collectively as a reaction to the social, environmental and political situations of the time.

One of the key artists from this period is Susanna Lacy, who studied with Alan Kaprow in the 1950s; he was the creator of ‘The Happenings’. These were a form of

avant guard actions performed in the public arena. Nowadays Susanna Lacy’s work deals with a lot of social issues through engagement and interaction with community project groups. (Plate 19)


One of the key strategies for activist art is the use of mass media, i.e. billboards, posters, newspapers etc. My strategy was to use the Black Mountain and then use the local media to talk about what was happening and open up the interest in the work.

A performance I made at Catalyst Arts in 2005 attempted to reach politicians, who at that time were not participating in dialogue in the Northern Ireland Assembly. I attempted to bring them around a table, which was decorated with white linen and six copies of the Good Friday Agreement. (Plate 20).


Imagine A City Of = did not take the form of a one off activist action. I left after placing one letter or symbol and returned with consistent regularity to complete the phrase. The work gained a lot of reaction because of the repetition of actions and as I was using the physical landscape as a canvas, it can be looked at as a piece of Land art. (Plate 21-35)

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The use of nature as a medium to create monumental works of art emerged in the late 1960s and early 70s as a response to the art worlds increasing materialism. Artists who were instrumental in this are Robert Smithson and Walter de Maria. They made works that could not be contained by any institution such as galleries or museums. One of the most iconic land works was made by Smithson, Spiral Jetty 1970, a spiral construction made from Basalt rock and earth, which jets into the Great Salt Lake in Utah. (Plate36)


Walter De Maria in his piece, Earth Room, filled an entire gallery space with earth, in this way he turned full circle and literally ‘the land’ into ‘the gallery’.(plate 37)


In particular with relation to my black mountain project, Francis Alys’s piece, ‘When Faith Moves Mountains’, April 11th 2002, Ventanilla, outside Lima, really impacted my thinking. This work involved the actual moving of a sand dune by 500 people it took social tensions as its material or energy and turned them into narratives; these narratives in turn intervene and integrate local histories. (Plate38)


With Activist art participation as Jeff Kelly puts it can also be, “a dialogical process that changes both the participant and the artist”[1]

I think it is very interesting how other individuals and groups reacted to the performative actions I undertook on Black Mountain. In response to current political events in Belfast, supporters of the Royal Irish Regiment descended on the mountain looking for the material I was using to add to their own supply which they used to spell out FAUGH A Ballagh, an RIR (Royal Irish Regiment) motto which was spelt out in huge white sheets in Irish, which means in English, (clear the way) (Plate39). This message was primarily directed to provoke a response from the Nationalist community. In a way this action for those soldiers (RIR) serving in Iraq and Afghanistan was ironic given that they were off a Loyalist persuasion. This would defeat the purpose of defending so called democracy, as it must be about respect, for individuality, integrity and self-inclusion, which means equality!


This action was totally political in its content and directed to one side of the community.

[1] Kelly Jeff, ‘But is it Art? The spirit of Art as Activism’, Bay Press, Seattle, 1996 p12

Chapter 4: Land Art Land art is by nature a public art, and can inevitably become political due to location of sites.

If we look at the example of Christo and Jeanne Claude whose work involves hanging curtains and wrapping politically live areas /buildings.  (Plate 40)


My location meant that my work there was not politically neutral and during the course of my actions there were several interesting reactions and consequences, which occurred. For example the H of Home mistaken for a comment on the hunger strikes, H block. This was because the political history of the black mountain includes it being used as a platform for actions, mainly protests, of a similar nature to my project- placing large scale letters on the mountain face.

1981, Republicans placed a huge H beside the hatchet field, in relation to the Hunger strike. 1991, Republicans again used the hatchet field were by they placed Free Dessie Ellis.  Ellis was an Irish Republican prisoner, who was in an English jail. (Plate 41) 1998 The YES campaign, supporters placed YES on the mountain. 2000 Words of courage, words of protest Guardian, April 13 2000. 2002 Loyalists form the 4th River Glencairn placed KAT (Kill all Taigs) and UFF using white sheets 2004 Sorry day Cave hill Mountain. (Plate 42) 2008 No Bush 15th June. (Plate 16)



This meant my work was weighted with connotations from these previous textual actions and gave my message an extra potency. It also affected the viewer’s reactions and responses.

I feel that my work on the black mountain represented a change in the Northern Irish political/social landscape as the message I spelt out was intended for all the inhabitants of the city. I believe it is a simple message.

I am interested and concerned about how to channel this dialogue and I want to present the work (photographically documented) as a panel discussion and initiate a planting action.

At this stage it is possible that my project will turn full circle by revisiting the site with further engagement with community groups, the kind of engagement I initially thought my project would take on.

I wanted the whole city to be able to see what I was doing; it had to be of a scale where people could see it from below and be an organic process which could build up a dialogue. I believe my piece is a work of Land art. In the article, ‘Here today, gone tomorrow’, Helen Stolias talks about the issue of land art disappearing as it disappears from view by environmental erosion[1]. This did not affect my project as unlike the land artists I have mentioned I removed my work on the Black mountain from view methodically at the end of each working day.  Bringing material and only leaving it there for a day meant that I had to be aware of the environmental issues surrounding my work. I also needed to be aware of the local teenagers who were a potential problem as they had previously interfered with the materials on the mountain.

From the outset of the process I kept in mind the ecological and environmental implications for the mountain, thus, my choice of medium viz a viz white polythene plastic causing no damage to the land and easily removed after each action.

Conclusion While I do not term my work as that of an activist artist, it does lend itself to activism[2]. “What matters is that people of conscience are using their imaginations in the interest of social justice”.[3]

My main aim had been to create a piece of artwork on the mountain, which was either temporal or permanent. I feel that I have achieved this through an organic process. At the beginning I was not sure how it would unfold or how I could use the mountain to provoke a dialogue. Imagine a City of = in itself consisted of temporal actions by the placing of letters and removing them, the reactions and responses during this time were an invaluable part of the process. The action will continue through a planting project designed to incorporate community project groups and I believe that the impact of Imagine a City of = will be a central core to the future actions planned. Thus creating a permanent artwork on the mountain.

Twenty five years ago I used to frequent the mountain during the summer months and there I found empty bullet cases left behind by the British Army, who used the mountain as a firing range. I collected the bullet cases and felt they were symbolic of what was happening in Belfast and indeed Northern Ireland. British occupation seemed to even consume the Black mountain. Around the same time frame I trained on the mountain as a fell runner this was my escape from the reality of what was happening to my town and my own personal difficulties. It gave me a sense of freedom that I had never experienced before.

For almost a year now I have ascended and descended the Black Mountain regularly so that I have experienced the mountain in all four seasons. When one is faced with only the natural elements one has to face ones own demons. It certainly was a contemplative time of self reflection and self analysis. Throughout I constantly questioned not only the process but myself and what this tumultuous project meant for my own self development. It became apparent to me after the first phase of the project that no longer was I leading the process but the process in itself had taken on a life of its own. The organic process that I wished for actually became a reality, in actual fact it had taken more than I could have possibly imagined at the outset.  Viz a viz global issues emerged in the second phase of the project.

So I regard the project as been more successful than I imagined. My dream of the mountain has become my reality.

“The role of utopias is not to be reached. It is to stimulate us to try harder, go further.  To be able to dream is already a dream come true”.[4]

[1] Stollas, H, Land ART, Here today gone tomorrow, issue 195 The art newspaper, 23/10/2008. [2] Although my work on the whole is not that of an activist I have made a few performances/installations which have been purely political in nature. [3] Nina Felshine, But is it Art? The Spirit of Art Activism. Dore Ashton, Back page, Bay Press Inc. 1995. [4] Augusto Boal, Theatre of the oppressed, Pluto Press, London, 2000

Bibliography Books: The 20th century Art Book, Phaidon Press Inc, NY, 1996 Augusto Boal, Theatre of the oppressed, Pluto Press, London, 2000 J.Kastner & B. Wallis, Land and environmental Art,Phaiden, NY, 1998 Arts Council NI, Public Art Handbook For Northern Irelnad, Nicholson & Bass, NI, 2006 B Nick Kaye, Site Specific Art, Rutledge, London, 2000 James Turrell, Inside Outside, CV publications, London 2008 Jacques Derrida, The Postcard: from Socrates to Freud and Beyond, University of Chicago Press, 1987, Jan Van Der Merck, George Segal, Henry N Abram’s publishers Inc, NY 1975 Nina, Felshin, But is it Art? The spirit of Art as Activism, Bay Press, Seattle, 1996 George, Santayana, ’History The Definitive Visual Gide, London, Dorling Kindersley, 2007 Leslie Hill & Helen Paris, The Guerilla Guide to Performance Art, Continuum, London, New York, 2001.

Articles Helen Stoilas Land art, Here today gone tomorrow, issue 195, The art newspaper, 23/10/12008 Kester, Grant, Dialogical Aesthetics 1999 – 2000 Art Forum, Francis Alys, A thousand Words; Francis Alys talks about when faith moves mountains